In June 1946 in Yaroslavl
on the basis of plant No.226 there was established Pilot plant No.226 (later on enterprise m/b No.135) for development of
new commercial methods of synthetic rubbers production from oil stock (Resolution of Council of USSR Ministers No.1196-495
dated June, 10, 1946). By 1958 enterprise m/b No.135 had grown into large pilot basis for developing of production technologies
of butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene from oil stock, and also for developing of production technologies of some kinds of synthetic rubbers.
Later on this gave an occasion to establish scientific and research institute on this basis.
|Information about JSC RI Yarsintez
In accordance with Resolution of Communist Party and Council of USSR Ministers dated July, 23, 1958
No.795 on the basis of enterprise m/b No.135 there was established Scientific & Research Institute of monomers for synthetic rubbers (NIIMSK).
At the same time NIIMSK was approved the leading organization for production techniques development and implementation preparing of
commercial processes of monomers for synthetic rubber production. In 1962 NIIMSK was additionally obliged to be the leading institute
for development and commercial implementation of butyl rubber production processes.
With a view to shorten the duration and to raise the quality of research developments for production
processes of monomers for synthetic rubbers, elastomers and other organic synthesis products, in accordance with order of Ministry
of Petrochemical Industry of USSR No.359 dated 03.07.89 scientific & manufacturing organization Yarsintez (NPO Yarsintez) was
established. Its base units were as follows:
It was assigned that NPO Yarsintez acts on the basis of USSR law about state enterprise
(organization) and is a juridical body
- cientific & research institute of monomers for synthetic rubbers (NIIMSK) the leading base unit;
- pilot plant;
- design department of NIIMSK.
In accordance with Decree of President of Russian Federation No.721 dated 01.07.92 privatization
was carried out at Yarsintez in 1992 and on 21.01.93 by resolution No.56 of Head of Yaroslavl Leninsky region Management there was registered Joint Stock Company scientific & manufacturing organization Yarsintez, from 25.12.95 Joint Stock company Research Institute Yarsintez.
The main task of the institute when organizing was practical realization of the course for SR industry conversion to inedible raw material and
its accelerated development on the basis of technological progress. The institute has accomplished this task in the following directions:
Selection of the major directions and problems of R&D was determined by national economic tasks and structure of synthetic rubber industry
- Development of production processes of basic monomers (butadiene, isoprene, isobutylene, styrene) for synthetic rubber from oil stock.
- Development of production processes of auxiliary products for synthetic rubber industry and other sectors of national economy
- Development of production processes of butyl rubber and its modifications
- Development of production processes of some kinds of rubbers and latexes by method of emulsion polymerization
In Yarsintez activities one can mark out three stages: the first is from 1946 to 1958, the second is from 1958 to 1988, the third is from 1988 till nowadays.
At the first stage the pilot base was created and the first R&D laboratories required for new processes development were established. At the second stage the pilot plant
gained the status of research institute, R&D laboratories required for new processes complex development were established. At this stage the process being developed in the previous years began to be used in industry.
At the third stage the company runs on self-supporting and self-financing, and afterwards in conditions of complete juridical and economic independence.
R&D activities were carried out in laboratories and pilot shops at the units of various capacities (from model to semi-commercial). At that the complex of items required for industrial production establishing was solved:
- Development of the process technology;
- Development of analytical test methods and production control;
- Development of methods of waste waters and gas effluents neutralization;
- Materials and apparatuses selection;
- Development of process equipment design;
- Development of safety engineering measures;
- Development of standard documents for raw materials, auxiliary materials and commercial products;
- Development of processes feasibility study;
- Technical service rendering in commercial plants start-up and development.
In 1947 1962 the method of butadiene production from non-edible taw material was developed process of two-staged butane dehydrogenation. Large scale butadiene production by two-staged butane dehydrogenation was applied during 1960 1963 at four plants.
|MAJOR DEVELOPMENTS OF THE INSTITUTE
A group of engineers (Menyailo A.T., Fridshtein I.L., Soldatov B.Y., Bushin A.N., Trokhachev I.R.) was given a State purse of the II degree in 1950 for development of the catalyst of the second dehydrogenation stage.
By the end of 1965 the next process technologies were developed:
- Production process of butyl rubber with unsaturation of 2 % for butyl rubber production at Sumgait plant of Synthetic Rubber, either production process of butyl rubber with increased unsaturation of (2.5 3 %) for Perm, Northern Caucasus, Kremenchug plants of Synthetic Rubber and
for the II turn of Novokuibyshevsk petrochemical complex;
- Processes of butadiene fine refining for stereoregular polymerization;
- Process of fine refining of butadiene being produced from alcohol, was applied at two Synthetic Rubber plants (in 1964 at Efremov SR plant, in 1965 at Voronezh SR plant).
- Process of isoprene purifying. Schedule for commercial productions design was issued. The work for further improvement of the process was kept on.
- Jointly with NIISS method of 100% isobutylene production with ion-exchange resins, for commercial units design at Northern Caucasus and Perm SR plants.
- Industrial technology of raw isopentane purification by rectification and hydrorefining.
- Isoprene production by isopentane two-stage dehydrogenation with using microspherical Ê-5 catalyst at the first stage, and catalyst
Ê-16 at the second stage. Dehydrogenation products separation on the first and on the second process stages is recommended to carry
out by extractive rectification using dimethyl formamide as a solvent.
Later on NIIMSK introduced a number of improvements in the process. The second stage of dehydrogenation was improved by means of Ê-16 catalyst change for KNF
catalyst which had been developed jointly with Czechoslovakian Institute of oil and hydrocarbon gas (Bratislava), for design of isoprene from isopentane production at Northern Caucasus, Perm, the II-nd turn of Sterlitamak SR plant and Novokuibyshevsk petrochemical complex. Butadiene production with this catalyst was introduced in 1968 at Novokuibyshevsk petrochemical complex.
R&D laboratories and pilot units of NIIMSK carried out development of new methods of butadiene and isoprene production which allowed to decrease the cost significantly and to increase the raw sources of these monomers:
- butadiene production by one-stage butane dehydrogenation in vacuum;
- butadiene production by butane and butylenes oxidative dehydrogenation;
- isoprene from propylene synthesis.
In 1963 1970 the commercial plants of isoprene production were successfully developed at Sterlitamak, Kuibyshev and Nizhnekamsk.
The process of isoprene production by isopentane dehydrogenation after the institute technology was realized for the first time in the world without direct analogues. Its establishing allowed providing stable source of raw material for SKI-3 rubber production. At the same time jointly with Giprokauchuk the processes of Ñ5 hydrocarbon mixtures separation and of isoprene fine purification were developed and commercialized.
KNF catalyst was changed for more efficient IM-2204 catalyst being developed jointly with Catalysis Institute of Siberian branch of USSR Academy of Science.
The catalyst of the process first stage was changed for more stable IM-2201(IM-2201M) catalyst. At the same time the original continuous commercial technology of production of microspherical catalysts for paraffin hydrocarbons dehydrogenation was developed and patented in a number of countries.
In the systems with catalyst fluidized bed the process of isobutane into isobutylene dehydrogenation was studied and afterwards successfully realized at 8 commercial plants.
At the end of the 60-s jointly with Sterlitamak SR plant the new Ê-22 catalyst for alkyl aromatic hydrocarbons dehydrogenation was developed. Later on the more efficient Ê-24 and Ê-28 catalysts intended for import catalyst replacement were developed.
There were also developed the domestic version of one-stage n-butane to butadiene dehydrogenation process and isopentane to isoprene dehydrogenation process and ÄÂ-3Ì-6 catalyst for these processes.
A serious work of Yarsintez was development of rather economical processes of oxidation paraffins and olefins and catalysts for these processes: IM-603, IM-605, IM-612 (IM-632).
From the time of institute establishment a great attention was always paid to development of efficient methods of separation of complex hydrocarbon mixtures and to monomers fine purification. In the 50-s there was developed the process of butadiene from Ñ4 fractions extraction by chemisorption with cupra-ammonium solution of copper oxide acetate. This process was later on realized at all the SR plants.
For butadiene purification of acetylene compounds in 60-s there was developed the method of catalytic hydration with catalyst based on palladium KPG.
Afterwards the chemisorption processes were replaced by more perfect processes of extractive rectification. NIIMSK jointly with Giprokauchuk developed the processes of butadiene extraction from dehydrogenation and pyrolysis fractions by two staged extractive rectification with polar extraagents. Process with dimethylformamide was applied at Nizhnekamskneftechim, process with acetonitrile in Togliatti, Novokuibyshevsk, Nizhnekamsk, Omsk.
At commercial plants there was performed the acetone replacement for acetonitrile while butane-butylene fractions separation. For Ñ5 fractions separation in two-staged process of isopentane to isoprene dehydrogenation the process of extractive rectification with dimethylformamide, being developed at the institute, was used at 4 units. For isoprene purification the institute developed the more simple economical technology based on combination of ordinary and extractive rectification and chemical treatment with metal organic compounds.
For butyl rubber synthesis the isobutylene of high purity is required. The institute had developed the original process of isobutylene extraction from hydrocarbon fractions; later on it was significantly improved. The process was realized at 3 plants.
Jointly with the institutes (Institute of Petrochemical Synthesis, Institute of Hetero-organic Compounds of Russian Sciences Academy) the deep research of the processes of olefins dimerization and disproportionation, which are of a certain commercial interest, were carried out.
Yarsintez had also a close cooperation with a number of leading scientific organizations of Russia: Institute of catalysis in the name of Boreskov G.K. Siberian branch of Russian Science Academy, Institute of organic chemistry, Moscow State University, Institute of chemical physics, All-union Aluminium-Magnesium Institute, Russian Scientific centre Applied chemistry (Ivanovo) and others.
One of the main Yarsintez activity direction is production technology of small-scale monomers and other chemical products. On the basis of the institute developments in 1955 the only methyl-vinyl-pyridine production in the country at Omsk SR plant was established. On the basis of this process waste the production of metals acid corrosion inhibitors was arranged. Later on the process of combined production of 4-vinylpyridine and 2-vinylpyridine was developed. The technology of pyridine and 3-picoline, 2,6-lutidine production was also developed.
There was a rather important development of complex production of synthetic pyridine basis and acid corrosion inhibitors for equipment protection at oil and gas fields.
According to the institute developments the production of tert dodecyl mercaptan was arranged at PO Salavatnefteorgsintez; the institute developments allowed significantly growing of butyl acrylate production at PO Orgsteklo (Dzerzhinsk). The production technology of a number of other acrylates and methacrylates, the third co-monomer for EPDM rubber ethylydene norbornene was developed.
Institute has developed the exclusively effective process of methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production a high octane component of gasoline.
was a head institute for butyl rubber production technology development. In 1949 the first batch of butyl rubber was produced at pilot unit, and in 1956 a commercial production of butyl rubber in ethyl chloride medium was arranged at Efremov plant. At present the butyl rubber productions via polymerization successfully operate at TPO Sintezkauchuk and PO Nizhnekamskneftechim. Chlorinated and brominated rubbers, which technologies were also developed by the institute, are of high profile for tyre, mechanical rubber and other branches of industry.
At present the halobutyl rubbers production is arranged at PO Nizhnekamskneftechim under Yarsintez technology.
In 60-s a new scientific trend appeared at the institute production of non-emulsion rubbers latexes. In 1970 at Yaroslavl SR plant the butyl rubber latex production was put into operation. In 1978 at PO Nizhnekamskneftechim the pilot-commercial production of latex on the basis of synthetic isoprene rubber was put into operation.